wtorek, 3 stycznia 2012

Ekonomiczne funkcje pieniądza

Funkcja cyrkulacyjna (transakcyjna)[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest powszechnym "środkiem wymiany" w transakcjach kupna-sprzedaży. Każdy przyjmuje go za sprzedane towary i usługi, wiedząc o tym, że za pieniądze będzie mógł nabyć inne niezbędne mu dobra (materialne lub usługi). Dzięki pieniądzowi nastąpiło rozdzielenie w czasie transakcji kupna-sprzedaży na dwie odrębne czynności – transakcję kupna oraz transakcję sprzedaży – przez co przestała istnieć konieczność zachowania jedności czasu i miejsca. Towar lub usługa może być sprzedany, a za otrzymane pieniądze dokonać zakupu towaru lub usługi w innym miejscu oraz w innym terminie.

Funkcja obrachunkowa (miernik wartości towarów)[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest „miernikiem wartości”. Przy pomocy pieniądza możliwe jest wyrażenie wartości innych towarów (w postaci cen towarów w jednostkach pieniężnych), ponieważ jest powszechnym ekwiwalentem. Cena jest pieniężnym wyrazem wartości towarów i usług. Wyrażenie wartości towarów i usług w pieniądzu wiąże się z siłą nabywczą pieniądza. Aby określić cenę towaru lub usługi nie trzeba posiadać pieniądza, gdyż pełni on rolę miernika wartości również abstrakcyjnie.

Funkcja płatnicza[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest "środkiem płatniczym". Pieniądz stał się środkiem płatniczym poprzez oddzielenie się ruchu towarów i świadczonych usług w czasie od ruchu pieniądza. Dzieje się tak dlatego, że zapłata za towar lub usługę nie musi następować natychmiast po ich dostawie. Zarówno sprzedający jak i kupujący zazwyczaj umawiają się co do terminu zapłaty należności za dostarczone towary lub usługi. Powstaje więc zobowiązanie odbiorcy wobec dostawcy, które wyrównane będzie w formie pieniężnej w terminie późniejszym. Pieniądz spełnia funkcję środka płatniczego również przy pokrywaniu innych zobowiązań, jak np. z tytułu podatków i opłat, wynagrodzeń pracowników, spłaty kredytów, darowizn itp.
Wraz z rozwojem społeczno-gospodarczym funkcja pieniądza jako środka płatniczego ciągle wzrasta, natomiast jako środka wymiany, maleje. Transakcje gotówkowe występują w obrocie gospodarczym coraz rzadziej, gdyż są zastępowane powszechnie przez obrót bezgotówkowy.

Funkcja tezauryzacyjna[edytuj]

Funkcję "środka przechowywania wartości (tezauryzacji)" pieniądz spełnia wtedy, gdy środki pieniężne uzyskane ze sprzedaży towarów lub usług nie są przeznaczane na zakup innych towarów lub pokrycie zobowiązań, lecz są przechowywane (oszczędzane).
Przechowywanie pieniędzy jest znacznie łatwiejsze niż innych towarów. Ponadto pieniądz może być w każdej chwili zamieniony na potrzebny towar. Jest on najbardziej płynnym aktywem majątkowym każdego podmiotu gospodarczego lub osoby fizycznej. Można go w każdej chwili wykorzystać jako środek płatniczy. Jednak aby pieniądz prawidłowo spełniał funkcję tezauryzacyjną, musi posiadać zaufanie podmiotów gospodarczych i ludności, w szczególności zaś musi przeważac przekonanie, że jego siła nabywcza nie zmniejszy się w znacznym stopniu[3].

28 komentarzy:

  1. Tunisia suspect in Benghazi case refuses to talk to
    FBI - lawyer These are the reasons cell phones are useful in automobiles and serves
    as the first set of reasons not to ban them while driving.
    It also happens to be unethical to ban cell phones while ignoring all the other road
    hazards that existed long before cell phones.
    The reason it is unethical is because a ban would appeal to fear more
    than logic. Logic states there are many contributors to
    driver negligence which may even be worse than cell phones.
    Yet these things are not always banned. Consider for a moment the following factors.
    http://www.misskoto.com/groups/why-you-should-be-using-a-voip-phone-service/ The first thing that you should do is save the cell phone number into your phone book or note it down
    on a piece of paper. Mobile phones can hamper family times.
    For example, children might take them to a dinner table.

    Decades ago, that wasn't the case. Ringtones going off are just as bad, too.
    My weblog : reverse cell phone lookup

  2. One more methodThe iPhone might be set to at all times cover the dialing
    phones number from the recipients caller IDs.
    This works by initiating each telephone call with the prefix *sixty
    seven to force the number to look as Blocked
    on the receiving caller ID. This is useful for making anonymous cellphone calls, or if you happen to just need
    to be dispatched to someones voicemail. Many people who use cell phones
    on the train would not want to be without
    them. Scott Starr, another Cold Spring Harbor resident, was waiting for The Call when his wife
    was expecting the couple's second child a few weeks ago. Silverman said complaints to the group about cell phone use were increasing, and most called attention to the volume of conversations. http://tinyurl.com/amtx2ln When you obtain the name and home address of the person behind this calls, you have the option to employ associated services offered by reliable reverse phone number look-up directories and try to discover some more information about the unknown caller. News of the World paid Sienna Miller 100,000 in damages after publishing 11 articles that used private information from her messages in 2005 and 2006, according to the Guardian .
    My web-site :: cell phone lookup

  3. I'm creating a collaborative blog and I need to find out if I can transform a blogspot blog as one where anyone can add content and edit or change the written text. Maybe there exists another type of blog whee you can do this.. Thanks everyone..

    Check out my weblog; http://www.misskoto.com/groups/news-on-transvaginal-mesh-advice/
    Here is my web-site ... Paxil

  4. Request the representative process a Device ID Change
    The manual device ID change should take less than five minutes.
    Make sure the agent stays on the line with you throughout the process so you can ensure your phone
    will activate properly. You definitely don't want to have to wait on hold again! As we know that silicone content is clear, smooth and flexible. Even you complete set the protect situation in your cellular phone, it will not impact your cellular phone control. And, it gel is set through the die style to developing, so producers will fully consider adjusting, to ensure it without the it gel set set like holster, fabric protects from it that often take off on load, this has greatly triggered the user. Moreover, content that it protect situation use has very excellent inert, normal not with any other acid and alkaline reaction items, and water proof, warm proof, heat insulating material. http://tinyurl.com/amtx2ln 1 Ultra-low Rates - prepaid calling cards typically have much lower long distance rates international and domestic USA than traditional long distance services even VOIP. By using a prepaid calling card you can easily save up to 95% on your long distance costs. And there is no need to switch long-distance carriers to receive the competitive rates prepaid calling cards offer. HTC Sensation Mobile Phone/Cell Phone How To Help and Tips
    Feel free to visit my site ... cell phone lookup

  5. Uses and Benefits of Rubber Mulch Mulches And Your Garden

    My blog post http://www.trtoli.com/
    My site ; trees for sale milwaukee

  6. How can i change the font on my wordpress blog?

    Feel free to surf to my blog post vaginal mesh lawyers
    Here is my weblog ... vaginal mesh lawsuit

  7. Your style is very unique compared to other people I've read stuff from. Thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I'll just bookmark this site.

    my webpage; http://falastiniah.Com/

  8. I love it whenever people come together and share ideas. Great site, continue the good work!

    Take a look at my web site: American Health Advantage Review

  9. Your method of explaining all in this post is in fact fastidious, every
    one be capable of effortlessly know it, Thanks a lot.

    Take a look at my page; is.gd

  10. Thіs is a great tip esрecially
    to thоse new to the blоgosphere. Shoгt but vеry аccuгate info… Aрρreciate
    yоur shаring this onе.
    A muѕt read aгticle! Pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości

  11. Howdy! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site?
    I'm getting tired of Wordpress because I've had problems with hackers and I'm looking at alternatives for another platform. I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Also visit my homepage ... Dental Plan WI

  12. All you need to know about Audible so you can make
    money in your sleep You can't argue with Sean's generosity, but couldn't he have just done it in, well, secret? Sean could just as easily have donated the other �50,000 he gave to Fairbridge, the charity working with young people with few qualifications and fewer prospects, via the Guardian's
    Christmas appeal, as that was one of the charities we supported last year.
    And if Channel 4 wants to highlight deserving causes, why
    not just do it without the mediation of a millionaire?

    Feel free to visit my web-site success by anthony

  13. Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs?
    I have a blog centered on the same ideas you discuss and would really like to have you share
    some stories/information. I know my viewers would appreciate your work.
    If you're even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email.

    Also visit my website ... Http://openmicvoices.com/LeonorBri

  14. How do I get blog stats widget on my new wp blog?

    Also visit my page - transvaginalmesh411.net

  15. A small offer to an enormous demand unrelated to the likely
    value of the case is a "signal" that the other side isn't interested in negotiating against astronomical numbers, but may be "back in the game" if a more reasonable demand is made. Perhaps after a series of small offers and consistently large demands, one of the parties will make a conditional offer or conditional reduced demand, contingent on the other side matching the movement with a specific big concession of its own. This signal can sometimes break an impasse.

    Here is my web page: yaz lawsuit settlement

  16. My brother recommended I might like this website.

    He was totally right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information!

    Feel free to visit my website :: pay day loans

  17. Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect
    against hackers? I'm kinda paranoid about losing everything I've worked hard
    on. Any tips?

    Feel free to visit my page :: Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags

  18. We are a gaggle of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our
    community. Your site offered us with valuable info to work on.
    You've performed an impressive task and our entire group will be thankful to you.

    Take a look at my web site Louis Vuitton Bags

  19. It's very effortless to find out any matter on net as compared to books, as I found this paragraph at this web site.

    Also visit my homepage :: Louis Vuitton Bags

  20. Hey! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be ok. I'm undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.

    Feel free to surf to my weblog More Info

  21. Howdy! Quick question that's entirely off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My website looks weird when viewing from my iphone. I'm trying to find a template or plugin that might be able
    to resolve this issue. If you have any recommendations, please share.

    Feel free to visit my web-site Boutique Air Jordan

  22. Just desire to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is just great and
    i can assume you're an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

    Look into my web blog Boutique Guess

  23. You actually make it appear really easy with your presentation however I in
    finding this topic to be really one thing which I believe I might never understand.
    It sort of feels too complex and very wide for me. I am looking ahead on your subsequent publish, I will attempt to get the cling
    of it!

    My webpage :: Sac Louis Vuitton

  24. Greetings! I've been reading your website for some time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Lubbock Tx! Just wanted to tell you keep up the good work!

    Also visit my page ... Nike Free Run

  25. Excellent post. I used to be checking continuously this weblog and I am inspired!
    Extremely helpful info specifically the ultimate section
    :) I take care of such info much. I was seeking
    this particular info for a long time. Thanks and good luck.

    my site: Look At This ()

  26. Wow that was strange. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after I clicked submit my
    comment didn't appear. Grrrr... well I'm not writing
    all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say wonderful

    Also visit my web-site Air Max Femme

  27. My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.

    I have always disliked the idea because
    of the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less.
    I've been using WordPress on a number of websites for
    about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform.

    I have heard very good things about blogengine.net. Is
    there a way I can import all my wordpress posts into it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    my page - Dragons Rise of Berk Hack Tool

  28. Bardzo ciekawy artykuł, szkoda tylko że trzeba się tak namęczyć, żeby go odczytać! Bardzo dużo rzeczy się z niego dowiedziałam odnośnie pieniędzy.

    Agata // http://grupatrinity.pl/uslugi/doradztwo-transakcyjne/wycena-marki-i-znaku-towarowego.html