wtorek, 3 stycznia 2012

Ekonomiczne funkcje pieniądza

Funkcja cyrkulacyjna (transakcyjna)[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest powszechnym "środkiem wymiany" w transakcjach kupna-sprzedaży. Każdy przyjmuje go za sprzedane towary i usługi, wiedząc o tym, że za pieniądze będzie mógł nabyć inne niezbędne mu dobra (materialne lub usługi). Dzięki pieniądzowi nastąpiło rozdzielenie w czasie transakcji kupna-sprzedaży na dwie odrębne czynności – transakcję kupna oraz transakcję sprzedaży – przez co przestała istnieć konieczność zachowania jedności czasu i miejsca. Towar lub usługa może być sprzedany, a za otrzymane pieniądze dokonać zakupu towaru lub usługi w innym miejscu oraz w innym terminie.

Funkcja obrachunkowa (miernik wartości towarów)[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest „miernikiem wartości”. Przy pomocy pieniądza możliwe jest wyrażenie wartości innych towarów (w postaci cen towarów w jednostkach pieniężnych), ponieważ jest powszechnym ekwiwalentem. Cena jest pieniężnym wyrazem wartości towarów i usług. Wyrażenie wartości towarów i usług w pieniądzu wiąże się z siłą nabywczą pieniądza. Aby określić cenę towaru lub usługi nie trzeba posiadać pieniądza, gdyż pełni on rolę miernika wartości również abstrakcyjnie.

Funkcja płatnicza[edytuj]

Pieniądz jest "środkiem płatniczym". Pieniądz stał się środkiem płatniczym poprzez oddzielenie się ruchu towarów i świadczonych usług w czasie od ruchu pieniądza. Dzieje się tak dlatego, że zapłata za towar lub usługę nie musi następować natychmiast po ich dostawie. Zarówno sprzedający jak i kupujący zazwyczaj umawiają się co do terminu zapłaty należności za dostarczone towary lub usługi. Powstaje więc zobowiązanie odbiorcy wobec dostawcy, które wyrównane będzie w formie pieniężnej w terminie późniejszym. Pieniądz spełnia funkcję środka płatniczego również przy pokrywaniu innych zobowiązań, jak np. z tytułu podatków i opłat, wynagrodzeń pracowników, spłaty kredytów, darowizn itp.
Wraz z rozwojem społeczno-gospodarczym funkcja pieniądza jako środka płatniczego ciągle wzrasta, natomiast jako środka wymiany, maleje. Transakcje gotówkowe występują w obrocie gospodarczym coraz rzadziej, gdyż są zastępowane powszechnie przez obrót bezgotówkowy.

Funkcja tezauryzacyjna[edytuj]

Funkcję "środka przechowywania wartości (tezauryzacji)" pieniądz spełnia wtedy, gdy środki pieniężne uzyskane ze sprzedaży towarów lub usług nie są przeznaczane na zakup innych towarów lub pokrycie zobowiązań, lecz są przechowywane (oszczędzane).
Przechowywanie pieniędzy jest znacznie łatwiejsze niż innych towarów. Ponadto pieniądz może być w każdej chwili zamieniony na potrzebny towar. Jest on najbardziej płynnym aktywem majątkowym każdego podmiotu gospodarczego lub osoby fizycznej. Można go w każdej chwili wykorzystać jako środek płatniczy. Jednak aby pieniądz prawidłowo spełniał funkcję tezauryzacyjną, musi posiadać zaufanie podmiotów gospodarczych i ludności, w szczególności zaś musi przeważac przekonanie, że jego siła nabywcza nie zmniejszy się w znacznym stopniu[3].

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